voestalpine Böhler Welding

Finishing Chemicals

Böhler Welding ist führender Hersteller von Beizprodukten für rostfreie Stähle und spezielle Legierungen. Wir bieten eine breite Palette von Finishing Chemicals wie Pickling Gele, Pasten, Sprays, Flüssigkeiten und Reinigungsmittel an. Rostfreier Stahl bekommt mit uns sein ursprüngliches Aussehen zurück. Zudem behält er sein Aussehen dank einer vor Korrosion schützenden Passivschicht – eine dünne, undurchlässige, unsichtbare Oberflächenschicht, die hauptsächlich aus Chromoxyd besteht. Unsere Produkte tragen zum Schutz bzw. zur Neubildung dieser Passivschicht bei, damit unsere Kunden herausragende Oberflächen aus rostfreiem Stahl anbieten können. Beizen von rostfreiem Stahl ist ein technisch hochwertiges Verfahren für optimalen Korrosionsschutz.

Longer Lasting

Our pickling pastes and sprays are highly effective and can be used in thinner coats than many other pickling products. Thanks to the colour and consistency of the products, they reduce consumption – already treated surfaces and residues left after rinsing are easily recognized. The result is lower consumption per running metre of welded joint or per square metre of treated surface.

Be stainless, stay stainless

Seit über 50 Jahren arbeiten wir eng mit führenden Herstellern von Edelstahl zusammen. Wir wissen, wie man Stähle rostfrei hält und haben eine komplette Produktpalette für jeden Bedarf. Die Produkte werden aufgetragen und arbeiten so, dass keine mechanischen Beschädigungen auftreten, die die Schutzschicht des Edelstahls schwächen können. Alle unsere Produkte sind einfach zu bedienen und haben einen tadellosen Ruf. Sie können sicher sein, dass unsere Finishing Chemicals Ihre Probleme lösen, die Oberfläche wiederherstellen und den ursprünglichen Zustand Ihres Edelstahls zurückbringen.

Unsere Produkte werden in Malmö, Schweden, in unserem eigenen, automatisierten Werk hergestellt. Alle Produkte haben die volle Rückverfolgbarkeit vom Rohstoff bis zum fertigen Produkt, was uns volle Kontrolle über die Produktqualität verschafft. Unsere Qualitäts- und Umweltmanagementsysteme sind nach ISO 9001 und ISO 14001 zertifiziert.

Procedures

Find here more information about the cleaning process of stainless steels.

More information

Products

Find here all products for pickling, passivation & neutralisation.

More information

Neutralisation

Find here more information about neutralisation of waste water.

More information

Safety

Find here more information about safety guidelines.

More information

FAQ´s

Find here useful information about the cleaning process of stainless steels.

More information

Cleaning procedures

Different chemical and mechanical methods, and sometimes a combination of both, can be used to remove the defects mentioned. Chemical cleaning can be expected to produce superior results. This is because most mechanical methods tend to produce a rougher surface while chemical methods reduce the risk of surface contamination. However, chemical cleaning may be limited not only by local regulations on environmental and industrial safety, but also by waste disposal problems.

Chemical methods

Chemical treatments can remove high-temperature oxide and iron contamination. They also restore the steel’s corrosion resistance properties without damaging the surface finish. After the removal of organic contaminants, the normal procedures are commonly pickling, passivation/ decontamination and/or electropolishing.

Pickling

Pickling is the most common chemical procedure used to remove oxides and iron contamination. Besides removing the surface layer by controlled corrosion, pickling also selectively removes the least corrosion-resistant areas such as the chromium-depleted zones. Pickling normally involves using an acid mixture containing nitric acid (HNO3), hydrofluoric acid (HF) and, sometimes, also sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Owing to the obvious risk of pitting corrosion, chloride-containing agents such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) must be avoided.

Find here the most common stainless steel grades and the matching welding consumables from Böhler Welding.

Steel group 1

Owing to the low chromium content, the corrosion resistance of this group is lower than that of the groups below. The lower resistance of the steels in this group means they are “easier” to pickle. In other words, to avoid the risk of overpickling, they need a shorter pickling time or a less aggressive pickling agent. Special care must be taken to avoid overpickling! The pickling result may be unpredictable.

Steel group 2

The steels in this group are standard grades and fairly easy to pickle.

Steel groups 3 – 4

The steels in this group are high-alloy grades. Being more corrosion resistant, they need a more aggressive acid mixture and/or higher temperature (to avoid an excessively long pickling time). The risk of overpickling these steel grades is much lower.

  • A rough, hot rolled surface may be harder to pickle than a smooth, cold rolled one.
  • The surface must be free of organic contamination.

Thickness and type of oxide layer depend largely on the welding procedure used. To produce a minimum of oxides, weld using an effective shielding gas that is as free of oxygen as possible. Particularly when pickling high-alloy steel grades, mechanical pretreatment to break or remove the oxides might be advisable

The effectiveness of pickling acids increases with temperature. Thus, the pickling rate can be considerably increased by increasing the temperature. However, there are upper temperature limits that must also be considered. Especially when using a bath, the risk of overpickling increases with high temperatures. When using pickling paste/gel/spray/ solution at high temperatures, evaporation presents the risk of poor results. Besides an uneven pickling effect, this also leads to rinsing difficulties. To avoid these problems, objects must not be pickled at temperatures above 45ºC or in direct sunlight.

The acid mixture influences the pickling behaviour.

Pickling with pickling paste/gel

Pickling paste (or gel) for stainless steels is suitable for pickling limited areas, e.g. weld-affected zones. It is best applied using an acid-resistant brush. Rinsing with water must be carried out before the paste dries. Even if, for environmental and practical reasons, neutralisation of the pickling paste is carried out on the metal surface, thorough rinsing with water is vital.

Pickling with pickling solution/spray

Pickling solution (or pickling gel in spray form) is suitable for pickling large surfaces, e.g. when the removal of iron contamination is also desired.

Pickling in a bath is a convenient method if suitable equipment is available.

Passivation and decontamination

This procedure is carried out in a manner similar to pickling. The passivator, applied by immersion or spraying, strengthens the passive layer. Because the passivator also removes free iron impurities from the surface, the treatment is more important after mechanical cleaning and operations involving a risk of iron contamination. It is for this reason that the method can also be referred to as decontamination.

Electropolishing

Electropolishing normally produces a surface that guarantees optimal corrosion resistance. It does not selectively remove areas of inferior corrosion resistance, but polishes microtips from the surface. The material gains a fine lustre and, most importantly, an even microprofile that meets extremely stringent hygiene requirements. For these reasons, electropolishing is normally used as a final treatment after pickling. This method is not covered in this site.

Choice of method

The choice of method and the amount of final cleaning required depend on: corrosion resistance requirements; hygiene considerations (pharmaceuticals, food, etc.); and, the importance of the steel’s visual appearance. Removal of welding defects, welding oxides, organic substances and iron contaminants is normally a basic requirement and usually allows a comparatively free choice of final treatment.

Provided that the surface roughness so permits, both mechanical and chemical methods can be used. However, if an entirely mechanical cleaning method is decided on, the manufacturing stage has to be very well planned in order to avoid iron contamination. If it is not, decontamination, probably with nitric acid, will be necessary. Where surface finish and corrosion resistance requirements are exacting, the choice of method is more critical. In such cases, a treatment sequence based on pickling gives the best chances of superior results.

The figure below shows the results of a test where the samples (steel grade 1.4404/316L with MMA welds) were post-weld cleaned using three different methods.They were then exposed to a marine environment for two weeks.

Grinding

Polishing

Pickling

Cleaning process

How to carry out a complete cleaning process:

  1. Inspect
  2. Pretreat mechanically
  3. Preclean
  4. Rinse
  5. Pickle
  6. Desmut
  7. Rinse
  8. Passivate
  9. Neutralise
  10. Inspect

Chemical methods in practice

General requirements

The choice of chemical cleaning process is primarily determined by: the type of contaminants and heat oxides to be removed; the degree of cleanness required; and, the cost. This chapter gives guidelines on suitable chemical cleaning procedures. In order to avoid health hazards and/or environmental problems, pickling must be carried out in a special pickling area, preferably indoors. In this context, compliance with the recommendations below should be regarded as compulsory.

  • Handling instructions and essential information (e.g. product labels, safety data sheets, etc.) for the various products must be available. Local and national regulations must also be available.
  • The personnel in charge must be familiar with the health hazards associated with the products and how these must be handled.
  • Personal safety equipment must be used. Find here more information about personal safety equipment.
  • When pickling indoors, the workplace must be separate from other workshop operations. This is not only to avoid contamination and health hazards, but also to ensure a controlled temperature.
  • The area must be well ventilated and provided with fume extraction apparatus.
  • Walls, floors, roofs, tanks, etc. that are subject to splashing must be protected by acid-resistant material.
  • A washing facility must be available, preferably including a high-pressure water jet.
  • A first-aid kit must be available against acid splashes. Find here more information.
  • If the rinse water is recycled, care must be taken to ensure that the final rinse is performed using deionised water. This is particularly important in the case of sensitive surfaces and applications.

Surface rust - before using voestalpine Böhler Welding Finishing Chemicals

Surface rust - after using voestalpine Böhler Welding Finishing Chemicals

Precleaning and degreasing

Contamination on the surface can impair the pickling process. To prevent this, thorough cleaning prior to pickling is recommended. Where loose dust, fingerprints, shoeprints and tool marks are the contaminants, acid cleaning (e.g. Avesta Cleaner 401) is usually adequate.

Pickling

Pickling products can be applied in three different ways:

  • Brushing, using a pickling paste/gel
  • Spraying, using a pickling solution
  • Immersion/circulation in/with a pickling bath
Beizpaste

Abbau der Dämpfe beim Beizen

Die beim Beizen erzeugten toxischen Stickstoffdämpfe haben eine Menge schädliche Auswirkungen auf Gesundheit und Umwelt. Durch die Verwendung von modernen Beizprodukten wie unserer BlueOneTM Beizpaste 130 und RedOneTM Beizpaste 240 können die toxischen Dämpfe um bis zu 80% reduziert werden.

Passivation and desmutting

  • Passivation is strongly recommended after mechanical treatment (to remove remaining iron contamination) and, in some cases, after spray pickling.
  • Desmutting removes the dark spots caused by excessive iron left on the surface by faulty cleaning.
  • Fume reduction: While bath pickling, spraying a passivator on the pickled object while lifting it from the bath reduces the toxic nitric fumes generated during bath pickling.

Neutralisation and waste treatment

Neutralisation

The waste water from pickling is acidic and contaminated with heavy metals (mainly chromium and nickel that have been dissolved from the steel). This waste water must be treated in accordance with local regulations. It can be neutralised using an alkaline agent (slaked lime, or soda) in combination with a settling agent.

Adjusting the pH value of the waste water causes the heavy metals to be precipitated as metal hydroxides. Precipitation is optimal at pH 9.5.

The heavy metals form a sludge that can then be separated from the neutralised clear water. This sludge must be treated as heavy metal waste and disposed of accordingly.

Waste treatment

Pickling creates waste that requires special treatment. Besides what comes from the chemicals themselves, the packaging must also be considered as waste.

The sludge obtained after neutralisation contains heavy metals. This sludge must be sent away for disposal in accordance with local waste regulations.

All materials used in the packaging (plastic containers, cardboard boxes, etc.) are recyclable.

Safe handling

Safety rules

Pickling products are hazardous substances and must be handled with care. Certain rules must be followed to ensure that the working environment is good and safe:

  1. Pickling chemicals must only be handled by persons with a sound knowledge of the health hazards associated with such chemicals. This means that the material safety data sheet (MSDS) and the product label must be thoroughly studied before the chemicals are used.
  2. Eating, smoking and drinking must be forbidden in the pickling area.
  3. Employees handling pickling chemicals must wash their hands and faces before eating and after finishing work.
  4. All parts of the skin that are exposed to splashing must be protected by an acid-resistant material, according to MSDS. This means that employees handling pickling chemicals (including during rinsing) must wear protective clothing as stipulated in the MSDS for the product in question.
  5. A First Aid kit containing calcium glucontate gel, Hexaflourine® (Avesta First Aid Spray) or other products suitable for an immediate treatment/rinsing of acid splashes caused by pickling products, should be easy available. For more information check the MSDS for the Avesta Pickling Products.
  6. The pickling area must be ventilated.
  7. To avoid unnecessary evaporation, the containers/ jars must be kept closed.
  8. To minimise the environmental impact, all pickling residues must be neutralised and all heavy metals separated from the process water and sent to a waste treatment plant.

Personal safety

Health hazards can be avoided by the use of breathing equipment and skin protection. If a high degree of personal safety is to be ensured, we strongly recommend that the following measures be regarded as compulsory.

For personal safety, a face mask (equipped with breathing apparatus) must always be worn in connection with pickling. Pickling acids are aggressive and, on contact, can burn the skin. This can be avoided by protecting all exposed skin with acid-resistant clothing.

All cleaning chemicals are supplied with:

  • Product information (PI) with reference numbers
  • Material safety data sheets (MSDSs) as per ISO 11014-1 and 2001/58/EC

These documents give the information necessary for the safe handling of the product. They must always be consulted before using the product in question.

Products

A uniqe pickling paste, used  for brush picking of welds and smaller surfaces, is suitable for all stainless steel grades. Safer-to-use with 80 % reduction of  the toxic nitric fumes. Gives a brighter surface compared to traditional pickling. 

Find more information in the Facsheet:

A heavy-duty stainless steel cleaner. Ideal for pre-cleaning of oil and grease befroe pickling and for removal of surface rust.

Find more information in the Facsheet:

A heavy duty pickling spray, used for spray pickling of larger surfaces,is suitable for Duplex steels  and tough applications. Gives a traditonal white pickled surface.

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

A safer-to-use acid-free passivator.Helps to remove freeiron from the surface and regenerate the protective passive layer thus speeding up the passivation process.

Find more information in the Facsheet:

Easy identifying of stainless steel grades. A  test to indicate Molybdenium in the stainless steel that helps differentiate 304 grade stainless steel from 316 grade. 

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

For simple neutralisation of acidi rinse water. Following the pickling process, the rinse water is trongly acidic and contains dossoloved heavy metals. For environmental reasons, this water should be treated before discharge.

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

A traditional nitric acid based, well-proven passivator.

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

Pickling Bath custom made after the exact customer needs.

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

Pickling Bath 302 is recommended for immersion pickling of small objects and for pickling surfaces that are timeconsuming to brush or spray pickle. It can also be used for circulation cleaning of pipe systems. To optimize the performance and the cost efficiency of the bath, chemical analyses are crucial. We have the know-how to help you.

Highly concentrated pickling bath for typical duillution 1:3. Recommended for immersion pickling of objects and circulation pickling of pipe systems.

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

Standard Pickling gel, used  for brush picking of welds and smaller surfaces, is suitable for most stainless steel grades. Ideal for use and storage in warmer climate.

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

Traditional transparent pickling spray, used for spray pickling of larger surfaces, is  suitable for all stainless steel grades.It which gives a white pickled surface.

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

A heavy duty pickling paste,  used for brush picking of welds and smaller surfaces,is  suitable for Duplex steels and tough applications..Safer-to-use with  70 % reduction of the the toxic nitric fumes. Gives a trational white pickled surface.

Contact us to find out more or visit our product search.

State of the art red coloured all-rounder pickling spray,used for spray pickling of larger surfaces . Safer-to-use with 50 % reduction of the toxic nitric fumes.Gives a brighter surface than traditonal products,is easy to apply and stick very well to the surface. Low consumption which gives less contaminated waste water.

Find more information in the Facsheet:

Stainless steels and their pickleability

*: Stainless steel grades
Group 1: Very easy to pickle (Group 1 is very easy to pickle but, at the same time, difficult to treat. There is a risk of overpickling. Great attention must be paid to pickling time and temperature.)
Group 2: Easy to pickle
Group 3: Difficult to pickle
Group 4: Very difficult to pickle

Link
1.4006 filter.0.0 410 filter.1.0 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX KW 10 filter.3.0 1 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4016 filter.0.1 430 filter.1.1 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX SKWA filter.3.1 1 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4016 filter.0.1 430 filter.1.1 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX EAS 2 filter.3.2 1 filter.4.0 filter.5.2
1.4016 filter.0.1 430 filter.1.1 FCAW filter.2.1 BÖHLER EAS 2-FD filter.3.3 1 filter.4.0 filter.5.3
1.4313 filter.0.2 410NiMo filter.1.2 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX CN 13/4 filter.3.4 1 filter.4.0 filter.5.4
1.4313 filter.0.2 410NiMo filter.1.2 MCAW filter.2.2 BÖHLER CN 13/4-MC filter.3.5 1 filter.4.0 filter.5.5
1.4301 filter.0.3 304 filter.1.3 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta 308L/MVR filter.3.6 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.6
1.4301 filter.0.3 304 filter.1.3 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX EAS 2 filter.3.2 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.2
1.4301 filter.0.3 304 filter.1.3 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta 308L-Si/MVR-Si filter.3.7 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.7
1.4301 filter.0.3 304 filter.1.3 MIG filter.2.3 BÖHLER EAS 2-IG (Si) filter.3.8 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.8
1.4401 filter.0.4 316 filter.1.4 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta 316L/SKR filter.3.9 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.9
1.4401 filter.0.4 316 filter.1.4 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX EAS 4 M-A filter.3.10 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.10
1.4401 filter.0.4 316 filter.1.4 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta 316L-Si/SKR-Si filter.3.11 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.11
1.4401 filter.0.4 316 filter.1.4 MIG filter.2.3 BÖHLER EAS 4 M-IG (Si) filter.3.12 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.12
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 MMA V-joint filter.2.4 Avesta 316L/SKR filter.3.9 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.9
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta 316L/SKR filter.3.9 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.9
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX EAS 4M filter.3.13 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.13
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta 316L/SKR filter.3.9 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.9
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX EAS 4M-A filter.3.14 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.10
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 FCAW filter.2.1 Avesta 316L/SKR filter.3.9 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.14
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 FCAW filter.2.1 BÖHLER EAS 4M-FD filter.3.15 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.15
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta 316L-Si/SKR-Si filter.3.11 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.11
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 MIG filter.2.3 BÖHLER EAS 4M-IG filter.3.16 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.16
1.4404 filter.0.5 316L filter.1.5 MCAW filter.2.2 BÖHLER EAS 4M-MC filter.3.17 2 filter.4.1 filter.5.17
1.4539 filter.0.6 904L filter.1.6 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta 904L filter.3.18 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.18
1.4539 filter.0.6 904L filter.1.6 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta 904L filter.3.18 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.19
1.4539 filter.0.6 904L filter.1.6 MMA filter.2.0 Thermanit 625 filter.3.19 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.20
1.4539 filter.0.6 904L filter.1.6 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta P12-R filter.3.20 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.14
1.4501 filter.0.7 S32760 filter.1.7 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta 2507/P100 filter.3.21 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.21
1.4161 filter.0.8 S32101 filter.1.8 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta LDX 2101 filter.3.22 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.22
1.4161 filter.0.8 S32101 filter.1.8 FCAW filter.2.1 Avesta LDX 2101 filter.3.22 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.14
1.4362 filter.0.9 S32304 filter.1.9 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta 2304 filter.3.23 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.23
1.4362 filter.0.9 S32304 filter.1.9 FCAW filter.2.1 Avesta 2304 filter.3.23 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.14
1.4462 filter.0.10 S32205 filter.1.10 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX CN 22/9N filter.3.24 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.24
1.4462 filter.0.10 S32205 filter.1.10 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta 2205 filter.3.25 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.25
1.4462 filter.0.10 S32205 filter.1.10 MIG filter.2.3 BÖHLER CN 22/9 N-IG filter.3.26 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.26
1.4462 filter.0.10 S32205 filter.1.10 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta 2205 filter.3.25 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.27
2.4605 filter.0.11 N06059 filter.1.11 MMA filter.2.0 Thermanit Nimo C 24 filter.3.27 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.28
2.4360 filter.0.12 N04400 filter.1.12 MMA filter.2.0 BÖHLER FOX NIBAS 400 filter.3.28 3 filter.4.2 filter.5.14
1.4547 filter.0.13 S31254 filter.1.13 MMA filter.2.0 Thermanit 625 filter.3.19 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.20
1.4547 filter.0.13 S31254 filter.1.13 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta P12-R filter.3.20 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.14
1.4547 filter.0.13 S31254 filter.1.13 MIG filter.2.3 Thermanit 625 filter.3.19 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.29
1.4547 filter.0.13 S31254 filter.1.13 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta P12 filter.3.29 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.14
1.4565 filter.0.14 S34565 filter.1.14 MMA filter.2.0 Thermanit Nimo C 24 A filter.3.30 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.14
1.4565 filter.0.14 S34565 filter.1.14 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta P16 filter.3.31 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.14
1.4565 filter.0.14 S34565 filter.1.14 MIG filter.2.3 Thermanit Nimo C 24 A filter.3.30 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.14
1.4565 filter.0.14 S34565 filter.1.14 MIG filter.2.3 Avesta P16 filter.3.31 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.14
1.4410 filter.0.15 S32750 filter.1.15 MMA filter.2.0 Avesta 2507/P100 filter.3.21 4 filter.4.3 filter.5.21

Typical pickling times for brush and spray pickling (cold rolled surfaces)

*: Stainless steel grades
Group 2: Easy to pickle
Group 3: Difficult to pickle
Group 4: Very difficult to pickle

Link
1.4301 filter.0.0 304 filter.1.0 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4301 filter.0.0 304 filter.1.0 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4301 filter.0.0 304 filter.1.0 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4301 filter.0.0 304 filter.1.0 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4401 filter.0.1 316 filter.1.1 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4401 filter.0.1 316 filter.1.1 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4401 filter.0.1 316 filter.1.1 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4401 filter.0.1 316 filter.1.1 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 30 - 60 filter.3.0 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.0
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 45 - 90 filter.3.1 2 filter.4.0 filter.5.1
1.4539 filter.0.3 904L filter.1.3 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4539 filter.0.3 904L filter.1.3 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4539 filter.0.3 904L filter.1.3 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4539 filter.0.3 904L filter.1.3 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4539 filter.0.3 904L filter.1.3 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4539 filter.0.3 904L filter.1.3 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4501 filter.0.4 S32760 filter.1.4 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4501 filter.0.4 S32760 filter.1.4 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4161 filter.0.5 S32101 filter.1.5 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4161 filter.0.5 S32101 filter.1.5 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4161 filter.0.5 S32101 filter.1.5 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4161 filter.0.5 S32101 filter.1.5 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4362 filter.0.6 S32304 filter.1.6 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4362 filter.0.6 S32304 filter.1.6 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4362 filter.0.6 S32304 filter.1.6 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4362 filter.0.6 S32304 filter.1.6 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4462 filter.0.7 S32205 filter.1.7 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4462 filter.0.7 S32205 filter.1.7 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4462 filter.0.7 S32205 filter.1.7 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
1.4462 filter.0.7 S32205 filter.1.7 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
2.4605 filter.0.8 N06059 filter.1.8 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
2.4605 filter.0.8 N06059 filter.1.8 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
2.4360 filter.0.9 N04400 filter.1.9 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 90 -180 filter.3.2 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.0
2.4360 filter.0.9 N04400 filter.1.9 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 120 -240 filter.3.3 3 filter.4.1 filter.5.1
1.4547 filter.0.10 S31254 filter.1.10 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 120 - 240 filter.3.4 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.0
1.4547 filter.0.10 S31254 filter.1.10 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 150 - 300 filter.3.5 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.1
1.4547 filter.0.10 S31254 filter.1.10 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 120 - 240 filter.3.4 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.0
1.4547 filter.0.10 S31254 filter.1.10 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 150 - 300 filter.3.5 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.1
1.4565 filter.0.11 S34565 filter.1.11 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 120 - 240 filter.3.4 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.0
1.4565 filter.0.11 S34565 filter.1.11 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 150 - 300 filter.3.5 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.1
1.4565 filter.0.11 S34565 filter.1.11 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 120 - 240 filter.3.4 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.0
1.4565 filter.0.11 S34565 filter.1.11 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 150 - 300 filter.3.5 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.1
1.4410 filter.0.12 S32750 filter.1.12 Avesta BlueOne™ 130 filter.2.0 120 - 240 filter.3.4 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.0
1.4410 filter.0.12 S32750 filter.1.12 Avesta RedOne™ 240 filter.2.1 150 - 300 filter.3.5 4 filter.4.2 filter.5.1

Typical pickling times using Avesta Pickling Bath 302

*: Stainless steel grades
Group 2: Easy to pickle - 1 part 302 into 3 parts water
Group 3: Difficult to pickle - 1 part 302 into 2 parts water
Group 4: Very difficult to pickle - 1 part 302 into 1 part water

Link
1.4301 filter.0.0 304 filter.1.0 Avesta 308L/MVR filter.2.0 30 min filter.3.0 15 min filter.4.0 10 min filter.5.0 2 filter.6.0 filter.7.0
1.4301 filter.0.0 304 filter.1.0 BÖHLER FOX EAS 2 filter.2.1 30 min filter.3.0 15 min filter.4.0 10 min filter.5.0 2 filter.6.0 filter.7.1
1.4401 filter.0.1 316 filter.1.1 Avesta 316L/SKR filter.2.2 40 min filter.3.1 20 min filter.4.1 10 min filter.5.0 2 filter.6.0 filter.7.2
1.4401 filter.0.1 316 filter.1.1 BÖHLER FOX EAS 4M filter.2.3 40 min filter.3.1 20 min filter.4.1 10 min filter.5.0 2 filter.6.0 filter.7.3
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 Avesta 316L/SKR filter.2.2 40 min filter.3.1 20 min filter.4.1 10 min filter.5.0 2 filter.6.0 filter.7.2
1.4404 filter.0.2 316L filter.1.2 BÖHLER FOX EAS 4M filter.2.3 40 min filter.3.1 20 min filter.4.1 10 min filter.5.0 2 filter.6.0 filter.7.3
1.4539 filter.0.3 904L filter.1.3 Avesta 904L filter.2.4 120 min filter.3.2 90 min filter.4.2 60 min filter.5.1 3 filter.6.1 filter.7.4
1.4362 filter.0.4 S32304 filter.1.4 Avesta 2304 filter.2.5 120 min filter.3.2 90 min filter.4.2 60 min filter.5.1 3 filter.6.1 filter.7.5
1.4462 filter.0.5 S32205 filter.1.5 Avesta 2205 filter.2.6 120 min filter.3.2 90 min filter.4.2 60 min filter.5.1 3 filter.6.1 filter.7.6
1.4462 filter.0.5 S32205 filter.1.5 BÖHLER FOX CN 22/9N filter.2.7 120 min filter.3.2 90 min filter.4.2 60 min filter.5.1 3 filter.6.1 filter.7.7
1.4547 filter.0.6 S31254 filter.1.6 Avesta P12-R filter.2.8 240 min filter.3.3 120 min filter.4.3 90 min filter.5.2 4 filter.6.2 filter.7.8
1.4547 filter.0.6 S31254 filter.1.6 BÖHLER FOX NIBAS 625 filter.2.9 240 min filter.3.3 120 min filter.4.3 90 min filter.5.2 4 filter.6.2 filter.7.9
1.4410 filter.0.7 S32750 filter.1.7 Avesta 2507/P100 filter.2.10 240 min filter.3.3 120 min filter.4.3 90 min filter.5.2 4 filter.6.2 filter.7.10
1.4410 filter.0.7 S32750 filter.1.7 BÖHLER FOX CN 25/9CuT filter.2.11 240 min filter.3.3 120 min filter.4.3 90 min filter.5.2 4 filter.6.2 filter.7.5

FAQ's

  • Inspect the surface to be treated and ensure that all non-stainless material has been protected.
  • Using an acid-resistant pump (Avesta SP-25), spray the product onto the surface. Apply an even layer that covers the entire surface. Do not apply in direct sunlight!
  • Allow the product sufficient reaction time, but avoid letting it dry. If the contaminants are stubborn (difficult to remove) and in thick layers, mechanical brushing with a hard plastic or nylon brush will help.
  • Preferably using a high pressure water jet, rinse thoroughly with clean tap water. To reduce acid splashing, prewashing at tap-water pressure (3 bars) is recommended. Ensure that no residues are left on the surface. Use deionised water for the final rinsing of sensitive surfaces.

1. Pretreat oxides, slags and weld defects mechanically. This should preferably be done while the welds are still warm and the weld oxides less hard.

2. After any welding, give the area to be pickled time to cool down to below 40ºC.

3. To remove organic contamination, degrease using Avesta Cleaner 401.

4. Before using, stir or shake the paste.

5. Using an acid-resistant brush, apply the pickling paste. Do not pickle in direct sunlight!

6. Give the product sufficient time to react. At high temperatures, and when prolonged pickling times are required, it might be necessary to apply more of the product after a while. This is because the product can dry out and thus cease to be as effective.

7. Preferably using a highpressure water jet, rinse thoroughly with clean tap water. Ensure that no pickling residues are left on the surface. Use deionised water for the final rinsing of sensitive surfaces.

8. Collect the waste water so that it can be neutralised.

Find here more information about neutralisation and waste treatment.

  1. Inspect the surface to be treated and ensure that all non-stainless material has been protected.
  2. Pretreat oxides, slags and weld defects mechanically. This should preferably be done while the welds are still warm and the weld oxides less hard.
  3. After any welding, give the area to be pickled time to cool down to below 40°C.
  4. To remove organic contamination, degrease using Avesta Cleaner 401.
  5. Before using, stir the spray gel well.
  6. Using an acid-resistant pump (Avesta SP-25), apply the product as a spray. Gently apply an even layer of acid that covers the entire surface. Do not pickle in direct sunlight!
  7. Allow the product sufficient pickling time.
  8. Desmutting is necessary if dark areas appear on the surface. Apply either more solution or Avesta FinishOne™ to these spots until they disappear. This must be done when the surface is still wet (i.e. “wet on wet”), just before the pickling spray is rinsed off. Spraying Finish One™ on top of the pickled surface also reduces the production of NOx gases.
  9. When pickling, the pickling spray must not be allowed to dry. Drying may cause discoloration of the steel surface. This means that at high temperatures, and when prolonged pickling times are required, it may be necessary to apply more of the product after a while.
  10. Preferably using a high-pressure water jet, rinse thoroughly with clean tap water. To reduce acid splashing, prewashing at tap-water pressure (3 bars) is recommended. Ensure that no pickling residues are left on the surface. Use deionised water for the final rinsing of sensitive surfaces.
  11. Passivation must be carried out directly after wet-onwet rinsing. Spray Avesta FinishOne™ Passivator 630 evenly over the entire surface.
  12. Leave to dry.
  13. Carry out inspection and process verification.
  14. All treated surfaces must be ocularly inspected for oil residues, oxides, rust and other contaminants.
  15. Collect the waste water so that it can be neutralised.

Find here more information about neutralisation and waste treatment.

  1. Pretreat oxides, slag and weld defects mechanically.
  2. After any welding, give the area to be pickled time to cool down to below 40°C.
  3. To remove organic contamination, degrease using Avesta Cleaner 401.
  4. Check the bath temperature (refer to table 3).
  5. Immerse the object in the bath. Typical pickling times are shown in table 2. Avoid overpickling. This can produce a rough surface.
  6. Allow the product sufficient pickling time.
  7. If dark spots appear on the surface, desmutting is necessary. Apply either more solution or Avesta FinishOne™ to these spots until they disappear. This must be done when the surface is still wet (i.e. “wet on wet”), just before the pickling spray is rinsed off. Spraying FinishOne™ on top of the pickled surface also reduces the production of NOx gases.
  8. When lifting the object, allow time for the bath solution to flow off above the bath.
  9. Rinse thoroughly using a high-pressure water jet. Ensure that no pickling residues are left on the surface. Use deionised water for the final rinsing of sensitive surfaces.
  10. Collect the waste water so that it can be neutralised. Find here more information about neutralisation and waste treatment.
  11. As the pickling acid in the bath is being constantly consumed and metals precipitated, analysis of bath contents is important. Bath contents affect the pickling reaction.
  • To passivate after mechanical treatment, first use Avesta Cleaner 401 to preclean the surface. Next, rinse with water and apply the passivator “wet on wet”. Leave it to react for 3 – 5 minutes.
  • To desmut or avoid smut formation during spray pickling, the passivator must be applied before rinsing while the surface is still wet (“wet on wet”). Leave it to react for 10 – 15 minutes.
  • To use for fume reduction after bath pickling, lift the object over the surface of the bath and spray FinishOne™ as a mist on the object’s surface (“wet on wet”).
  • To passivate after spray pickling, first rinse off the pickling spray and then apply the passivator. Leave it to react for 20 – 30 minutes. n Using an acid-resistant pump (Avesta SP-25), apply the product as a spray. Apply an even layer of acid that covers the entire surface.
  • Using an acid resistant pump (Avesta SP-25); apply the passivator as an even layer that covers the entire surface.
  • Preferably using a high-pressure water jet, rinse thoroughly with clean tap water. Ensure that no acid residues are left on the surface. Use deionised water for the final rinsing of sensitive surfaces.
  • There is no need to neutralise the waste water (it is neutral and acid free).
  1. Stirring all the time, add the neutralising agent to the rinse water.
  2. The neutralising reaction takes place instantly.
  3. Using litmus paper (for example), check the pH of the mixture. Precipitation of the heavy metals is optimal at pH 9.5.
  4. When the waste water has reached an acceptable pH value, wait for the sludge to sink to the bottom and for the water to become clear. Adding a special settling agent improves the precipitation of heavy metals.
  5. If analysis shows that the treated water satisfies local regulations, it can be released into the sewage system. To increase the degree of treatment, an extra filter can be inserted before the water reaches the sewage system.
  6. The sludge contains heavy metals and must be sent to a waste-treatment plant.
  1. Pickling chemicals must only be handled by persons with a sound knowledge of the health hazards associated with such chemicals. This means that the material safety data sheet (MSDS) and the product label must be thoroughly studied before the chemicals are used.
  2. Eating, smoking and drinking must be forbidden in the pickling area.
  3. Employees handling pickling chemicals must wash their hands and faces before eating and after finishing work.
  4. All parts of the skin that are exposed to splashing must be protected by an acid-resistant material, according to MSDS. This means that employees handling pickling chemicals (including during rinsing) must wear protective clothing as stipulated in the MSDS for the product in question.
  5. A First Aid kit containing calcium glucontate gel, Hexaflourine® (Avesta First Aid Spray ) or other products suitable for an immediate treatment/rinsing of acid splashes caused by pickling products, should be easy available. For more information check the MSDS for the Avesta Pickling Products.
  6. The pickling area must be ventilated.
  7. To avoid unnecessary evaporation, the containers/ jars must be kept closed.
  8. To minimise the environmental impact, all pickling residues must be neutralised and all heavy metals separated from the process water and sent to a waste treatment plant.

Kontakt

Finden Sie die lokalen Ansprechpartner für Ihre Anforderung.

weiterlesen

Application Services

Your added value.
Produkt- und Technikberatung, Prozessoptimierung, Trainings und Schulungen.

weiterlesen

Downloads

In diesen Bereich steht Ihnen eine Vielzahl an Zertifikaten, Produktfoldern, Broschüren, Bildern und Logos zum Download zur Verfügung.

weiterlesen