High-voltage direct current transmission, or HVDC for short, is a key technology in the field of electrical power transmission. In contrast to conventional AC transmission, HVDC enables the efficient transmission of large amounts of energy over very long distances. This is done by converting alternating current to direct current at a converter and reconverting it at the destination. HVDC links minimize losses during transmission, making them ideal for transporting electricity across oceans or deserts. This technology plays a crucial role in the integration of renewable energy sources, as it can connect different power grids. HVDC links are an important building block for the future of global energy supply.
Submarine cables have to withstand particularly high demands. The challenges are not only the length of the cables themselves, which is often several 100 km, but also the harsh environment, such as salt water, and the long service life of the cables - they are used under water for about 30 years.