voestalpine Böhler Welding

Stick electrodes

A modern world would be unimaginable without electric arc welding - it is one of the oldest processes for joining metals and used all over the world. It is generally known as MMA (manual metal arc welding). Electric arc welding with stick electrodes is still indispensable in steel and pipeline construction and can be used under all weather conditions. Today, around 25 to 30% of the world's welded products are produced with this process.

Electric arc welding with stick electrodes is one of the oldest and most versatile welding processes. And it is also considered as one of the simplest and safest methods. It is used to weld almost all types of metals. Stick electrodes are even used for underwater welding.

Process

For electric arc welding with stick electrodes, an electric arc is generated between the stick electrode and the base material. In shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or manual metal arc welding (MMA) using coated stick electrodes, the coating forms a protective gas shield and a slag, thereby protecting the transferred metal droplets and the weld metal against contact with atmospheric oxygen.

Further functions of the coating are de-oxidation of the weld metal, increasing the metal recovery, compensating for burn-off and ensuring good wetting behaviour. In practical use there are three significant types of coating: rutile, basic and cellulosic and mixtures of these. 

Coating

Find here more information about the different coating types.

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Products

Find here all products of stick electrodes for different type of steel.

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DRY SYSTEM

Find here more information about the DRY SYSTEM vacuum packaging.

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Classification

Find here more information about the classification of stick electrodes.

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FAQs

Find here useful information about applications of stick electrodes.

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Coating types

According to the European Norm DIN EN ISO 2560, there are a total of eight different types of coated stick electrodes for arc welding of unalloyed steels and fine-grained steel. The four main types are named after their main components:

  • C (Cellulose) cellulose electrodes
  • A (Acid) acid electrodes*
  • R (Rutile) rutile electrodes
  • B (Basic) basic electrodes

*Acid electrodes can hardly be found anymore and have been almost completely replaced by rutile electrodes.

These coating types are a very important differentiator for the unalloyed stick electrodes. Stick electrodes for high strength, creep resistant or high-alloyed steels according to the other EN standards are mostly coated with rutile or basic coating elements.

Cellulose-coated stick electrodes

Due to the high level of cellulose in the coating, they have excellent properties for out-of-position welding, but poor properties for horizontal welding. They are therefore mainly used for vertical-down welding on large pipes.

Rutile-coated stick electrodes

These electrodes are very popular due to their good welding properties. The welding arc is stable and calm and is easy to reignite, the seams are finely rippled, and most of the slag comes off by itself. Rutile-coated electrodes have sufficient toughness properties, but are only suitable for out-of-position welding to a limited extent (high-alloy). BÖHLER electrodes for under water welding are a special type namely rutile acid (RA). They have a special sealing to protect against the water.

Basic-coated stick electrodes

The main advantages of basic electrodes are the outstanding toughness properties of the weld metal and its resistance to hot and cold cracks. Basic-coated electrodes have a coarse droplet material transfer, can be used to weld in all positions and have somewhat coarsely rippled seams. The slag can be relatively easily removed, but not as easily as with rutile-coated electrodes.

 

Stick electrode portfolio

Each type of steel needs a different stick electrode. It can be differentiated between the following steel types:

  • Stick electrodes for unalloyed steels
  • Stick electrodes for high-strength steels
  • Stick electrodes for creep resistant steels
  • Stick electrodes for stainless steels
  • Stick electrodes for nickel and nickel alloys

Products

Link
BÖHLER FOX OHV filter.0.0 Unalloyed Steels filter.1.0 Rutile Coating filter.2.0 filter.3.0
BÖHLER FOX ETI filter.0.1 Unalloyed Steels filter.1.0 Rutile Coating filter.2.0 filter.3.1
Phoenix Grün T filter.0.2 Unalloyed Steels filter.1.0 Rutile Coating filter.2.0 filter.3.2
Phoenix SH Gelb R filter.0.3 Unalloyed Steels filter.1.0 Rutile Coating filter.2.0 filter.3.3
BÖHLER FOX EV 50 filter.0.4 Unalloyed Steels filter.1.0 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.4
Phoenix 120 K filter.0.5 Unalloyed Steels filter.1.0 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.5
BÖHLER FOX EV 65 filter.0.6 High-Strength Steels filter.1.1 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.6
BÖHLER FOX EV 70 filter.0.7 High-Strength Steels filter.1.1 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.7
BÖHLER FOX EV 75 filter.0.8 High-Strength Steels filter.1.1 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.8
BÖHLER FOX EV 85 filter.0.9 High-Strength Steels filter.1.1 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.9
Phoenix SH Ni 2 K 90 filter.0.10 High-Strength Steels filter.1.1 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.10
Phoenix SH Ni 2 K 130 filter.0.11 High-Strength Steels filter.1.1 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.11
BÖHLER FOX CEL 85 filter.0.12 Pipeline Welding filter.1.2 Cellulose Coating filter.2.2 filter.3.12
BÖHLER FOX CEL 90 filter.0.13 Pipeline Welding filter.1.2 Cellulose Coating filter.2.2 filter.3.13
BÖHLER FOX EV 70 Pipe filter.0.14 Pipeline Welding filter.1.2 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.14
BÖHLER FOX BVD 85 filter.0.15 Pipeline Welding filter.1.2 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.15
BÖHLER FOX BVD 90 filter.0.16 Pipeline Welding filter.1.2 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.16
BÖHLER FOX DCMS Kb filter.0.17 Creep Resistant Steels filter.1.3 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.17
BÖHLER FOX CM 2 Kb filter.0.18 Creep Resistant Steels filter.1.3 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.18
BÖHLER FOX CM 5 Kb filter.0.19 Creep Resistant Steels filter.1.3 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.19
BÖHLER FOX C 9 MV filter.0.20 Creep Resistant Steels filter.1.3 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.20
Thermanit MTS 3-LNi filter.0.21 Creep Resistant Steels filter.1.3 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.21
Thermanit MTS 616-LNi filter.0.22 Creep Resistant Steels filter.1.3 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.22
BÖHLER FOX EAS 2-A filter.0.23 Stainless Steels filter.1.4 Rutile Coating filter.2.0 filter.3.23
BÖHLER FOX EAS 4 M-A filter.0.24 Stainless Steels filter.1.4 Rutile Coating filter.2.0 filter.3.24
BÖHLER FOX EASN 25 M filter.0.25 Stainless Steels filter.1.4 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.25
BÖHLER FOX CN 20/25 M filter.0.26 Stainless Steels filter.1.4 Basic, Rutile Coating filter.2.3 filter.3.26
Avesta 2205 filter.0.27 Stainless Steels filter.1.4 Rutile Coating filter.2.0 filter.3.27
Avesta 2205 basic filter.0.28 Stainless Steels filter.1.4 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.28
Avesta 2507 P100 filter.0.29 Stainless Steels filter.1.4 filter.2.4 filter.3.29
Avesta 2507 P100 rutile filter.0.30 Stainless Steels filter.1.4 filter.2.4 filter.3.30
Thermanit Nicro 82 filter.0.31 Nickel and Nickel Alloys filter.1.5 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.31
Thermanit 625 filter.0.32 Nickel and Nickel Alloys filter.1.5 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.31
Thermanit 617 filter.0.33 Nickel and Nickel Alloys filter.1.5 Basic Coating filter.2.1 filter.3.31

DRY SYSTEM

Böhler Welding DRY SYSTEM is the efficient alternative for costly climate controlled storage and handling procedure, providing “oven dry” stick electrodes straight from the vacuum packaging. Böhler Welding DRY SYSTEM avoids the necessity of re-drying, and use of holding ovens and quivers in welding applications with a potential risk of hydrogen induced or hydrogen assisted cracking. Safe welding with low-hydrogen weld metal is assured up to nine hours after opening the vacuum pack.

Optimal quantity for high demanding industries

Stick electrodes ensure easy and flexible handling without gases and simple power sources. Böhler Welding DRY SYSTEM vacuum packages together with user friendly packaging sizes offer optimal packaging content in industries where stick electrodes are of high priority.

DRY SYSTEM user benefits

  • Guarantee of low-hydrogen weld metal - an important prerequisite in the prevention of hydrogen cracks
  • Avoidance of costly climate controlled storage and handling and re-drying. Simple distribution to welders
  • Possibility to check whether electrodes are within 9 hours of safe exposure
  • Content can be chosen to match fabricator or industry specific consumption
  • Can be disposed with normal paper and metal waste

Using a strong foil made of multi-layered aluminium, the new Böhler Welding DRY SYSTEM offers maximum safety against loss of vacuum due to the undesired penetration of sharp objects during storage and use. Welders will see immediately if the electrodes are still oven dry. With the vacuum in place, electrodes are ready to use. The packs can be stocked in any dry place where the packaging cannot get damaged. DRY SYSTEM is environmentally-friendly. No plastic in the form of PE or PP boxes is used at all.

Böhler Welding DRY SYSTEM for best in class products

Link
BÖHLER FOX OHV filter.0.0 Unalloyed filter.1.0 E6013 filter.2.0 E 38 0 RC 1 1 filter.3.0 filter.4.0
BÖHLER FOX 7018 filter.0.1 Unalloyed filter.1.0 E7018 H4R filter.2.1 E 42 4 B 4 2 H5 filter.3.1 filter.4.1
BÖHLER FOX EV 50 filter.0.2 Unalloyed filter.1.0 E7018-1 H4 R filter.2.2 E 42 5 B 4 2 H5 filter.3.2 filter.4.2
BÖHLER FOX EV 50-W filter.0.3 Unalloyed filter.1.0 E7016-1 H4 R filter.2.3 E 42 5 B 1 2 H5 filter.3.3 filter.4.3
Phoenix 120 K filter.0.4 Unalloyed filter.1.0 E7018-1 filter.2.4 E 42 5 B 3 2 H5 filter.3.4 filter.4.4
Phoenix Spezial D filter.0.5 Unalloyed filter.1.0 E7016 filter.2.5 E 42 3 B 1 2 H10 filter.3.5 filter.4.5
Phoenix ROT AR 160 filter.0.6 Unalloyed filter.1.0 E7024-1 filter.2.6 E 42 2 RA 5 3 filter.3.6 filter.4.1
BÖHLER FOX CEL filter.0.7 Pipeline filter.1.1 E6010 filter.2.7 E 38 3 C 2 1 filter.3.7 filter.4.6
BÖHLER FOX BVD 90 filter.0.8 Pipeline filter.1.1 E9018-GH4R filter.2.8 E 55 5 Z2Ni B 4 5 H5 filter.3.8 filter.4.7
BÖHLER FOX EV PIPE filter.0.9 Pipeline filter.1.1 E7016-1 filter.2.9 E 42 4 B 1 2 filter.3.9 filter.4.8
BÖHLER FOX 1 Ni filter.0.10 High Strength filter.1.2 E7018-G H4R filter.2.10 E 46 6 1Ni B 4 2 H5 filter.3.10 filter.4.9
BÖHLER FOX EV 60 filter.0.11 High Strength filter.1.2 E8018-C3 H4 R filter.2.11 E 46 6 1Ni B 4 2 H5 filter.3.10 filter.4.10
BÖHLER FOX EV 65 filter.0.12 High Strength filter.1.2 E8018-G H4 R; E8018-D1 H4 R (mod.) filter.2.12 E6218-G A H5; E 55 6 1NiMo B 4 2 H5 filter.3.11 filter.4.11
BÖHLER FOX EV 70 filter.0.13 High Strength filter.1.2 E9018-G H4 R; E9018-D1 H4 R (mod.) filter.2.13 E 55 6 1NiMo B 4 2 H5 filter.3.12 filter.4.12
BÖHLER FOX EV 85 filter.0.14 High Strength filter.1.2 E11018-G H4 R; E11018M H4 R (mod.) filter.2.14 E 69 6 Mn2NiCrMo B 4 2 H5 filter.3.13 filter.4.13
BÖHLER FOX 2,5 Ni filter.0.15 High Strength filter.1.2 E8018-C1 H4 R filter.2.15 E 46 8 2Ni B 4 2 H5 filter.3.14 filter.4.14
BÖHLER FOX C 9 MV filter.0.16 Creep Resistance filter.1.3 E9015-B91 H4 filter.2.16 E CrMo91 B 4 2 H5 filter.3.15 filter.4.15
BÖHLER FOX DMO Kb filter.0.17 Creep Resistance filter.1.3 E7018-A1 H4 filter.2.17 E Mo B 4 2 H5; E 46 5 Mo B 4 2 H5 filter.3.16 filter.4.16
BÖHLER FOX P 22 (LC) filter.0.18 Creep Resistance filter.1.3 E8018-B3L filter.2.18 E CrMo2L B 4 2 H5 filter.3.17 filter.4.17
Phoenix SH Chromo 2 KS filter.0.19 Creep Resistance filter.1.3 E9015-B3 filter.2.19 E CrMo2 B 4 2 H5 filter.3.18 filter.4.18
Thermanit Chromo 9 V filter.0.20 Creep Resistance filter.1.3 E9015-B91 H4 R filter.2.20 E CrMo91 B 4 2 H5 filter.3.15 filter.4.19
Thermanit Chromo 9 V MOD filter.0.21 Creep Resistance filter.1.3 E9015-B91 H4R filter.2.21 EZ CrMo91 B 4 2 H5 filter.3.19 filter.4.20
Avesta 316L/SKR filter.0.22 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E316L-17 filter.2.22 E 19 12 3 L R 3 2 filter.3.20 filter.4.21
Avesta 316L/SKR-4D filter.0.23 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E316L-17 filter.2.22 E 19 12 3 L R filter.3.21 filter.4.22
BÖHLER FOX CN 23/12-A filter.0.24 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E309L-17 filter.2.23 E 23 12 L R 3 2 filter.3.22 filter.4.23
BÖHLER FOX EAS 2-A filter.0.25 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E308L-17 filter.2.24 E 19 9 L R 3 2 filter.3.23 filter.4.24
BÖHLER FOX EAS 4 M filter.0.26 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E316L-15 filter.2.25 E 19 12 3 L B 2 2 filter.3.24 filter.4.25
BÖHLER FOX EAS 4 M-A filter.0.27 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E316L-17 filter.2.22 E 19 12 3 L R 3 2 filter.3.20 filter.4.26
BÖHLER FOX SAS 2-A filter.0.28 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E347-17 filter.2.26 E 19 9 Nb R 3 2 filter.3.25 filter.4.27
BÖHLER FOX SAS 4-A filter.0.29 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E318-17 filter.2.27 E 19 12 3 Nb R 3 2 filter.3.26 filter.4.28
Avesta 2507/P100 filter.0.30 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E2594-17 filter.2.28 E 25 9 4 N L R 3 2 filter.3.27 filter.4.29
BÖHLER FOX A 7-A filter.0.31 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E307-16 (mod.) filter.2.29 E Z 18 9 MnMo R 3 2 filter.3.28 filter.4.30
BÖHLER FOX CN 29/9-A filter.0.32 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E312-17 filter.2.30 E 29 9 R 3 2 filter.3.29 filter.4.31
BÖHLER FOX FFB-A filter.0.33 High Alloyed filter.1.4 E310-16 filter.2.31 E 25 20 R 3 2 filter.3.30 filter.4.32

Classification

Most welding consumables are classified in accordance with an EN ISO and AWS standard. There are a number of different EN ISO standards that apply for different areas:

  • Stick electrodes for unalloyed steels and fine-grained steels (EN ISO 2560)
  • Stick electrodes for high-strength steels (EN ISO 18275)
  • Stick electrodes for creep-resistant steels (EN ISO 3580)
  • Stick electrodes for stainless and heat-resistant steels (EN ISO 3581)
  • Stick electrodes for nickel and nickel alloys (EN ISO 14172)

AWS Standard

AWS stands for American Welding Society. In relation to the fields of application and the alloying type the following classification exists:

  • AWS A5.1/A5.1M Specification for carbon steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding
  • AWS A5.5/A5.5M Specification for low-alloy steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding
  • AWS A5.4/A5.4M Specification for stainless steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding
  • AWS A5.11/A5.11M Specification for nickel and nickel-alloy welding electrodes for shielded metal arc welding

 

FAQs

Unalloyed electrodes AWS A5.1

E7018-1H4R

  • E: Type of welding consumables. Here: Electrode
  • 70: Code for the min. tensile strength in [ksi]. Here: 70 ksi (=480 MPa)
  • 1: Code for the welding Position. Here: 1= All positions (2= flat and horizontal only)
  • 8: Type of coating and current and polarity. Here: iron powder low hydrogen. Polarity AC or DCEP
  • -1: This electrode meets low temperature impact requirements
  • H4: Code for diffusible hydrogen. Here: < 4mg / 100g weld metal
  • R: Code for reduced moisture Absorption

HIGH Alloyed electrodes AWS A5.4

E308L-16

  • E: Code for type of welding consumables. Here: Electrode
  • 308: Code for chemical composition
  • L: Code for low Carbon
  • -16: Usability Designation: -15 = DCEP only, basic type; -16 (-17) includes arc stabilizing elements (Rutile). AC possible.

Requirements: Good vertical-down welding properties

Answer: Cellulose electrode

Explanation: Due to its suitability for vertical-down welding (pos PG), this electrode type is used to weld circumferential seams on large diameter pipes (pipelines). Relatively thick electrodes (4 mm) can be used for root welding.

Requirements: Good bead appearance. Easy-to-remove slag and easy to reignite.

Answer: Rutile electrode

Explanation: The special properties of the electrodes are their good bead appearance, easy-to-remove slag and they are easy to reignite.

Requirements: Very high toughness properties

Answer: Basic electrode

Explanation: This electrode is suitable for all positions, and as a special type also for vertical-down positions. Basic electrode has the best toughness properties, even at low temperatures, and the highest resistance to cracking. It is used for difficult base materials and thick-walled parts. The low hydrogen content makes it possible to weld high-strength, fine-grained steels.

Requirements: Good vertical-up properties

Answer: Rutile basic electrode

Explanation: This electrode is good for welding on the root pass and in the vertical-up position in pipeline and container construction. It is also easy to handle in out-of-position welding.

Requirements: Good underwater properties

Answer: Rutile acid electrode

Explanation: For underwater welding, a stick electrode is needed with good seam quality to weld in wet environments in order to economically produce quality underwater welding connections.